| || ||
On Reading the Pope (part one) | Fr. James V. Schall, S.J. | January 19,
Already in reading the remarkable amount of material the present Holy Father
writes each week, it is clear, as in the case of his predecessor, that it
is a full time job just to keep up with him. The public responsibilities
of a pope both to be present for and to speak to an amazing variety of differing
people from all over the world requires himin both short talks or
letters, in weekly exhortations and audiences, and in a variety of other
forato explain to us how he understands our faith and its foundations.
Regularly, the Pope speaks to members of the diplomatic corps, as to heads
of state or high officials, to a constant stream of bishops and curial staff,
to visitors, to conferences, to members of other religions, to athletes,
actors, and philosophers, to the small, the great, and the ordinary.
Obviously, the Pope has a staff, a schedule, and a thought-out agenda, for
he also has his own ideas about what needs to be said. The Church needs
to be ruled, governed. His position allows him to say what no one else in
the world will tells us. Yet he must be prudent and careful. In these days,
the wrong word might cause St. Peters to be blown up. Fanatics, as they
are called, seem to spare nothing and no one. Many audiences regularly occur.
People will hear him differently, some with sympathy, some with hostility,
some with curiosity, some with doubts, some with faith, some with questions.
Benedict XVI, in his weekly audiences, continuing the reflections on the
Psalms that John Paul II began, always manages to cite one of the Fathers
of the Church, or sometimes a more obscure bishop or theologian. For example,
in his comments on Psalm 136 (OR, 16 Nov 2005), Benedict recalls St. Basil
the Great. Interest in the Fathers, of course, was one of Benedicts
many scholarly interests. But it is also a reminder that, in the intellectual
and religious world, we do not just have the Bible and modern thought. We
also have tradition. That is, we must be aware that Christians have been
constantly thinking and writing about this revelation given to us throughout
the history of the Church. The same core of revelation is explained in every
"I find the words of this fourth-century Father (Basil) surprisingly
up to date," Benedict tells us, "when he says:
Some people, "deceived by the atheism they bore within them,
imagine that the universe lacked guidance and order, at the mercy, as
it were, of chance." How many these "some people" are
today! Deceived by atheism they consider and seek to prove that it is
scientific to think that all things lack guidance and order as though
they were at the mercy of chance. The Lord through Sacred Scripture
reawakens our reason, which has fallen asleep and tells us: in the beginning
was the creative Word. In the beginning the creative Word this
Word that created all things, that created this intelligent design which
is the cosmos is also love.
In view of a recent court decision by a Pennsylvania judge telling us that
intelligent design cannot be taught because it is covert religion, this
passage is of remarkable interest. The Pope here does not say that the order
of the cosmos is a religious question, even though religion also affirms
it. To see this design, we are prodded by Scripture to "reawaken our
reason," quite a different thing. The even more subtle message of this
reference is that patristic interpretation of Scripture is not made wholly
obsolete by modern methods.
The Pope is ever sensitive to the effect such teachings of atheism or scientific
disorder have on our souls, especially the young. To a group of Mexican
bishops, he said that the young "find themselves facing a society marked
by growing cultural and religious pluralism. Furthermore, sometimes very
lonely and bewildered, they come up against currents of thought which hold
that men and women, without the need for God and even opposed to God, achieve
fulfillment through technological, political and economic power" (OR,
21 September 2005). Again and again, the Pope will meet this skeptical position
head on. It simply will do not do what it claims.
In his audience at Castel Gandolfo for that same week, on Psalm 132, the
Pope cites the fifth-century priest, Hesychius of Jerusalem. But he first
tells us of the importance of temples and, a pari, churches, following the
example of David in the Old Testament to build God a dwelling place.
And this is a very important thing, because it shows that at the
heart of the social life of a city, of a community, of a people there
must be a presence that calls to mind the mystery of the transcendent
God, a proper space for god, a dwelling for God. Man cannot walk well
without God; he must walk together with God through history, and the
task of the temple of the dwelling of God, is to point out in a visible
way this communion, this allowing God to guide.
The Pope is obviously aware that there are governments today that will not
allow such temples or churches to be built, or which put severe restrictions
Implicitly, the Pope underscores a form of polity that recognizes, as part
of its own dignity, and therefore a guidance to its youth, the presence
of such temples in its midst. The state by itself does not "worship"
God, as it is not itself a physical, substantial being, but it must provide
a place, a space for those who can. Technical, political, and economic power
are not enough to satisfy the human heart, yet, to recall what he told the
Mexican bishops about youth, they need to see through the currents of thought
that cut man off from God.
The Pope often turns to the subject of what the Church is. It is first
listening to what is revealed. This is the starting point, the only starting
point of the theological enterprise. On occasion of the 40th
anniversary of Vatican IIs document on divine revelation, the Pope
the Dogmatic Constitution Dei Verbum, whose drafting I personally
witnessed as a young theologian, taking part in the lively discussions
that went with it, begins with the deeply meaningful sentence, "Hearing
the Word of God with reverence, and proclaiming it with faith...."
The Church does not live on herself but on the Gospel, and in the Gospel
always and ever anew finds the direction for her journey. This is a
point that every Christian must understand and apply to himself or herself;
only those who first listen to the Word can become preachers of it.
Indeed, they must not teach their own wisdom but the wisdom of God (OR,
This was a theme that the then Cardinal Ratzinger
touched on in his Spirit of the Liturgythat the preacher
is not there to tell us what he thinks or concocts about spiritual things,
but what the Gospel says.
The judgment announced by the Lord Jesus refers above all to the
destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70. Yet the threat of judgment
also concerns us, the Church in Europe, Europe and the West in general.
With this Gospel, the Lord is also crying out to our ears the words
that in the Book of Revelation he addresses to the Church of Ephesus:
If you do not repent I will come to you and remove your lamp-stand
from the place. Light can also be taken away from us...
The Pope can be a bit whimsical. In his homily for the opening of the
Synod on the Eucharist, he spoke of bread and wine. With all due respect
to the tea totalers of this world, especially those who must forgo this
pleasure for their own safety, the German pope shows that he is aware
of the good side of what grows on those orderly vines along the Rhine,
Mosel, and Main riverbanks in his homeland. "Wine ... expresses the
excellence of creation and gives us the feast in which we go beyond the
limits of our daily routine: wine, the Psalm says, gladdens the
heart. So it is that wine and with it the vine have also become
the images of the gift of love in which we can taste the savour of the
Divine" (OR, 5 October 2005). Belloc would have loved such a sane
But the Pope uses this imagery to talk of love itself.
"God instilled in men and women, created in his image, the capacity
to love, hence also the capacity for loving him, their Creator."
Often, as in this instance, the Pope will come back to the relation of
creation and love. He will show that the whole structure of our world
is contingent on this respect of God for our freedom and of the centrality
of our freedom as something that God holds most sacred. "In the foreground
of the Old Testament is the accusation of the violation of social justice,
of contempt for human beings by human beings. In the background, however,
it appears that with contempt for the Torah, for the law given by God,
it is God himself who is despised. All people want is to enjoy their own
power." These are sober thoughts. Behind the contempt of human beings
for human beings lurks the contempt for God, for the order of His creation.
What replaces itwith overtones of Machiavelli and Nietzscheis
the desire for power for its own sake.
How does the Pope explain the logic of the relation of love and power?
"We men and women, to whom creation is, as it were, entrusted for
its management, have usurped it. We ourselves want to dominate it in the
first person and by ourselves. We want unlimited possession of the world
and of our own lives. God is in our way." We should, on reading such
lines, have no doubt that we have a first-class mind on the Chair of Peter.
He starts right off teaching us about ourselves, our culture, and the
heart of our cultures disorders. "Either he (God) is reduced
merely to a few devout words, or he is denied in everything and banned
from public life so as to lose all meaning. The tolerance that, as it
were, admits God as a private opinion but refuses him the public domain,
the reality of the world and of our lives, is not tolerance but hypocrisy."
One form of tolerance allows us to speak, another form only allows itself
When Benedict was elected pope, several commentators remarked that, just
as John Paul II was chosen because he came from the communist world, so
Benedict was selected because the primary spiritual disorder in the world
today is found in the souls of the Europeans and their betrayal of their
own heritage, in their freely chosen loss of population and confidence
in what they are. The Pope continues in the same homily:
Even if we are unbelievers, these are sober words indeed. Again and again
in his writings, as did John Paul II in his last book, Memory and Identity,
the Pope has returned to the subject of Europe: What is it? What is its
problem? Does it have a future?
On his first Christmas as Pope, Benedict had many nice things to say about
its traditions. At the Angelus on December 11, commenting on Christmas preparations,
the Pope said, "following a beautiful and firmly-rooted tradition,
many families set up their Crib immediately after the Feast of the Immaculate
conception, as if to relive with Mary those days full of trepidation that
preceded the birth of Jesus. Putting up the Crib at home can be a simple
but effective way of preserving faith, to pass it on to ones children"
(OR, 14 December 2005)
At Midnight Mass in St. Peters, the Pope continued, "Along with
the Christmas tree that our Austrian friends have also brought us this year
a small flame lit in Bethlehem, as if to say that the true mystery of Christmas
is the inner brightness radiating from this Child." (OR, 4 January
2006). And at the General Audience December 21, 2005, he added, "As
we prepare to celebrate the Saviours Birth joyfully in our families
and our Ecclesial Communities, while a certain modern, consumerist culture
tends to do away with the Christian symbols of the celebration of Christmas,
may it be everyones task to grasp the value of the Christmas traditions
that was part of the patrimony of our faith and our culture, in order to
pass them an to the young generation." (OR, 4 January 2006).
How does one deal with the temptations and problems presented to us in modern
culture? Writing to the First National Day of Young Catholics in the Netherlands,
Benedict observes: "How easy it is to be content with superficial pleasures
that daily life offers us; how easy it is to live only for oneself, apparently
enjoying life! But sooner or later we realize that this is not true happiness,
because true happiness is much deeper, we find it only in Jesus. ..."
What to do about it? "The recitation of the Rosary can help you learn
the art of prayer with Marys simplicity and depth. ...Take care to
grow in the knowledge of the faith in order to be its authentic witnesses.
Dedicate yourselves to understanding Catholic doctrine ever better even
if at times in looking at it with the eyes of the world it may seem a difficult
message to accept, in it is the answer that satisfies your basic questions"
(OR, 14 December 2005). Notice that the Pope proposes awareness of the problem,
of our reaction to it, the need both of prayer and intellectual understanding.
The Pope is clearly very aware of the high level of intelligence demanded
within the Church. The Catholic Church is definitely a thing of intellect.
To members of the International Theological Commission, the Pope pointed
to a number of perplexing issues that need attention. He recalled something
related to Dominus Jesus, namely "The fate of children who die
without Baptism in the context of the universal salvific will of God, of
the one mediation of Jesus Christ and, of the sacramentality of the Church"
(OR, 14 December 2005). This is part of the more general discussion of the
relation of all non-baptized to salvation and its specific relation to the
Church as its primary locus. It is of interest how calmly the Church can
identify problems, state their dimensions, and propose the limits within
which the solution must be found, taking all issues into consideration.
In the same consideration, the Pope turns to another important issue. One
of the great problems in modern social thought has been the great confusion
over "natural" or "human rights." This is an unfortunate
term in many ways. In its current usage, it is usually a product, not of
classic or medieval, but of modern political philosophy. In its modern form,
it has a specific meaning, usually from Hobbes, namely that a "right"
is a power to do whatever we want. For its basis, it presupposes nothing
but the will of the one who demands it.
As the Church documents themselves often use this same phrase "natural
rights," nothing but confusion has resulted when "rights"
are declared to be the foundation of Catholic social thought. Many immediately
assume that the Church is using and accepting the modern meaning when it
uses the modern words. Thus, abortion and homosexuality are called "rights"
in modern usage, but are violation of natural law or right in Church usage.
In fact, the modern understanding of the term "natural rights"
undermines what this term is intended to mean in Church thinking.
The Pope, obviously aware of what is at stake, addresses this problem. First,
he says, we can understand "the natural moral law" only if we
see that rights "are rooted in the persons nature and as such,
derive from the will of God the Creator." That is, they are not rooted
in ones freedom to choose what ever he has the power to dothe
modern conception of rights. "Even before any positive law by a State,
these (natural) laws are universal, inviolable, and inalienable, and must
therefore be recognized as such by all, and especially by the civil authorities
who are called to promote them and guarantee respect for them" (OR,
14 December 2005). Notice the special emphasis always put on the intelligence
and conscience of legislators and judges.
Thus, the roots of "rights" are not in the simple will of the
legislators who propose positive laws as the contents of rights. Behind
all laws are objective standards, not subjective wills. "Even if the
concept of human nature seems to have been lost to contemporary
culture, the fact remains that human rights cannot be understood without
presupposing the values and norms, which are to be rediscovered and reaffirmed
and not invented or subjectively or arbitrarily imposed, are innate in the
Benedict knows that such a view of the ontological basis of rights is rejected
in much of modern legal and political thought. But he insists in challenging
this same thought on the basis of reason. "The dialogue with the secular
world is of great importance: it must appear clearly that the denial of
the ontological foundation of the essential values of human life inevitably
ends in positivism and makes law dependent on the currents of thought that
predominate in a society, thereby corrupting law and making it an instrument
of power instead of subordinating power to law" (OR, 14 December 2005).
That this subordinating of law to power is a pretty good description of
what has happened in most political jurisdictions goes without saying.
Two of "On Reading the Pope" (January 20, 2006).
Related IgnatiusInsight.com Links/Articles:
for Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI)
Archives of IgnatiusInsight.com
articles by Fr. James V. Schall, S.J.
James V. Schall, S.J., is Professor of Political Philosophy at Georgetown
He is the author of numerous books on social issues, spirituality, culture,
and literature including Another
Sort of Learning, Idylls
and Rambles, On the Unseriousness of Human Affairs: Teaching, Writing,
Playing, Believing, Lecturing, Philosophizing, Singing, Dancing,
and A Student's Guide to Liberal Learning.
Read more of his essays on his
the Insight Scoop Blog and read the latest posts and comments by
IgnatiusInsight.com staff and readers about current events, controversies,
and news in the Church!
| || || |